English Shorthand practice dictation with pdf transcription for stenography exam skill test preparation.
Dictation trandcription- An interesting idea followed in other countries allows cooperative-corporation joint ventures and different classes of share capital. Allowing trading in closed circles, clear exit clauses and allowing buy back by FPOs of outside investor shares, may help raise initial capital.
Unfortunately, joint ventures permitted in the Indian Producer Company Act allow very little outside share capital. Hence, innovative ways of providing working capital to FPOs are urgently needed. The highly successful collateral-free, self help group-bank linkage programme needs to be adapted for FPOs, based on a case-by-case business analysis and cash flows, rather than on collateral.
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The RBI is willing to categorise lending to FPOs as a priority sector, but banks are not willing to come forward without collateral. An alternative is a special fund outside the banking system. Finally, the huge interest burden on FPOs needs to be reduced. Unlike in microfinance, if interest costs are halved, profits are doubled in agribusiness.
Finally, there are taxes and regulations. While farm gate sales are tax-exempt for the farmer, FPOs with processing units have to pay VAT on the entire sales proceeds, effectively on the purchase of raw material as well. Hopefully, the proposed GST Bill will iron out this anomaly.
The combined effect of interest rate reduction and tax breaks can make these FPOs triple their profits and thus mobilise large numbers of farmers quickly — perhaps even faster than Amul did. The regulatory burden at the grassroots is far too cumbersome needing more than 20 permissions, each taking time and facing several obstacles. It effectively kills the growth of this sector. These need to be waived by giving SEZ type privileges to FPOs.
In spite of such odds, we still see the odd successful FPO running well for decades. The real question is not why there are so few; it is how even these few succeeded. The combined turnover of cooperatives in the U.S. is over $500 billion, and for Europe’s top 10 cooperatives, it is $110 billion. Our largest and only one has a turnover of $3 billion. Those countries have less than 10 per cent of their population engaged in farming while we have over 50 per cent. Surely we can do better.
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